TUKUL 4: Melka Kunture Archaeology

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Garba XII


The site of  Garba XII was excavated from 1977 to 1979 over a surface of about 50 m2.
In particular the three archaeological levels D, H, and J have been explored.
The last and more important one is also the oldest.


The site of Garba XII is made of seven stratified levels for a thickness of 2 m. This fluvial sequence  (clays, sand, gravel, and pebbles) covers Tuff A dated to 1.3/1.1 Myr and ends with Tuff B. On the basis of information from the paleomagnetism, the age of the site should be between about 0.9 and 1.0 Myr.



Antelope horn-core
Remains of animals adapted to a savannah with trees have been recovered: a fragment of maxilla of a primate (Thereopithecus sp.), some remains of Hippopotamus amphibius, Phacochoerus modestus, Suids and Alcelaphines.

Lithic industry

The tools vary according to levels. The oldest living floor (J) yielded mainly some artifacts made of trachybasalt and less frequently of obsidian. Hammers and choppers are especially numerous as well as some large end scrapers on pebble (rabots), but also some more or less archaic handaxes. The cleavers are rare. The tools on flake (side scrapers, end scrapers, etc.) are carefully retouched. In levels H-D  flakes are frequent, mainly made of obsidian. The frequency of side scrapers and end scrapers increases and borers are more frequent. In level H a large basalt cleaver has been recovered as well as a polyhedric spheroid similar to modern bolas.





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