Museum

TUKUL 1: African Prehistory

tukul1 Open air museum Tukul 2 Tukul 3 Tukul 4 panel 1 panel 2 panel 3 panel 4 panel 5 panel 6 panel 7 panel 8 panel 9 Open air museum Tukul 2 Tukul 3 Tukul 4 panel 1 panel 2 panel 3 panel 4 panel 5 panel 6 panel 7 panel 8 panel 9 Open air museum Tukul 2 Tukul 3 Tukul 4 panel 1 panel 2 panel 3 panel 4 panel 5 panel 6 panel 7 panel 8 panel 9

 

Konso-Gardula

The site

The site of Konso-Gardula (KGA) lies in southern Ethiopia, near the sources of the Segen river, a few miles north of the town of Konso. It was discovered in 1991 during systematic surveys carried out by the Ethiopian Archaeological Service. Since 1993, a joint Ethiopian-Japanese mission, directed by J. Beyene and G. Suwa, has regularly conducted surveys and excavations here. The Plio-Pleistocenic layers consist of ca. 50 m of sand, gravel, silts, and clay alternating with volcanic tuff.


Konso Gardula

Characteristics of archaeological layers

Acheulean artifacts were found at several levels (KGA 3, 5, 7-12), especially immediately above and below a volcanic horizon with a K/Ar date between 1.34±0.04 and 1,38±0.07 Myr, while at KGA 4E industries were found under tuff with a K/Ar date of 1.44±0.05 Myr. The lithic industry includes numerous handaxes, trihedral points, rare cleavers, basalt cores and flakes on quartz, quartzite and other volcanic rocks. It is associated with fauna, notably elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, as well as several species of Equids, Suidae, and Bovids.

Many paleontological remains of great mammals show clear signs of human action. The remains of twelve hominids, attributed to Homo erectus and Australopithecus boisei, have been found at Konso-Gardula so far, in levels K/Ar dated to 1.44±0.05 Myr. They bear witness to the coexistence of these two species in this time period.

 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

B. Asfaw, Y. Beyene, G. Suwa, R.C. Walter, T.D. White, G. Woldegabriel, T. Yemane 1992, The earliest Acheulean from Konso-Gardula, Nature, 6460, 362, pp. 732-735.

G. Suwa, B. Asfaw, Y. Beyene, T.D. White, S. Katoh, S. Nagaoka, H. Nakaya, K. Uzawa, P. Renne, G. Woldegabriel 1997, The first skull of Australopithecus boisei, Nature, 389, pp. 489-492.


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