TUKUL 2: Geology and Volcanology

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Volcanic Forms

Young forms

The summit cone of Mount Asama (Japan)

The Asama is an explosive volcano because of the viscosity of its lavas. Historical eruptions have caused very numerous casualties.

Its top is constituted by a very regular projections cone, with a terminal crater built by the last eruptions and often in activity (1994).

Mount Asama, Japan, 1994

The Vulcano crater (Eolian Islands, Italy)

Vulcano is an explosive volcano, the last eruptive period of which dates back to 1889/1890.

Always active and very monitored, it represents an important danger because of the great number of tourists in the island where it is located (1990).

Vulcano, Eolian Islans (Italy) 1990

The Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica)

Rincon de la Vieja is one amongst the numerous active volcanoes in Central America. Already very explosive and dangerous due to the viscosity of its lavas, it has the particularity to contain a lake in its crater, the expulsion of which in the course of eruptions gives origin to muddy flows very destructive in the neighbouring valleys (1994).

Rincon de la Vieja, Costa Rica 1994

Roped lavas

Thanks to the deformable cooling skin which covers them when setting, pahoehoe lavas have the possibility to give spectacular shapes as the well-known roped lavas. Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island 1977.

Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island 1977

Mount Etna, view from its eastern border (Sicily, Italy)

Etna (3350 m a.s.l., 45x38 km) is a huge volcanic mountain built in less than 500.000 years by thousands of eruptions.

Permanently in activity in its terminal craters, it delivers an important eruption each four or five years on average, what does not avoid hundred thousands of people to live on its slopes.  

Etna, Italy 1988

Ancient forms

The Chaîne des Puys (France)

The most recent volcanic activities of the France, dated to some thousands years old, has edified a range of 80 well preserved volcanoes.

The picture particularly shows two breached strombolian cones and a viscous lava dome (The Puy de Dome), 1980.

Chaine de Puy, France 1980

The Gour de Tazenat (the Chaîne des Puys, France)

This from represents a large explosion crater filled by a lake (maar) with a diameter of 800 m and a deepness of more than 60 m.

It results from the contact between an ascending magma and infiltrated water whose vaporization has considerably increased the explosive violence of the eruption (freatomagmatic eruption). 1980.

Gour de Tazenat, France 1980


A dyke occupies an old magma channel of an eruption. It corresponds to the lava filling of an eruptive fissure.

This lava was harder than the materials which it has crossed and, for that reason, it remains in relief after erosion. Etna, Sicily, Italy 1975.

Etna, Italy 1975

Basaltic lava-flow architecture

Particular interventions in the setting and the cooling of a variety of basaltic lava-flows can allow the formation of several types of prismatic jointing unequally resisting to the erosion and they give scenic features to the old volcanic landscape.

Haute Loire, France, 1982.

Haute Loire, France 1982



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